pineapple fruit benefits how to massage back knots formula of salicylic acid nexgard for dogs side effects getting sober without aa over the counter testosterone pills does it get better definition of exclusion mcg vs. mg appetite suppressant drugs arm sore after tdap shot what are lymph glands another name for asthma how to take doxycycline for chlamydia ffxiv brand new gloves is klonopin addictive at small doses cranberry juice detox drug test how long does campylobacter last why do i keep spotting albuterol sulfate inhalation can allergies cause a bad cough what is tramadol prescribed for causes for increased heart rate pronounced veins in hands lydia ref id definition of seminal vesicle infections from antibiotics stroke causes and symptoms gastroenteritis in babies harvoni drug interactions smoking plastic fumes rivastigmine transdermal system ana blood test levels heather meme images how to treat skin cancer aspen veterinary resources itchy eyes runny nose bleeding 5 weeks after c section h pylori diet mayo clinic inflammation of the lungs medical term nph insulin peak time veins of the liver lahaye eye center congestion in babies chest stages of a wart opiates after suboxone taking aspirin with ibuprofen benefits of comfrey root parasites that cause diarrhea natural herbal supplements for erectile dysfunction thrombin spray kit how to ice a knee why does my neck itch motrin back pain pain in the lower leg treatments for neck pain does vitamin k thin the blood influenza vis 2015 mylan 477 pill plugged ducts lecithin peg 400 density fish amoxicillin for humans symptoms of high blood claritin-d side effects otc meds for opiate withdrawal hpv and menstrual cycle mobic for headache chloraseptic sore throat recovering from depression and anxiety positive ept pregnancy test weight loss prescription drug list duragesic 50 mcg coconut oil for vaginal dryness calculating insulin dose type 2 diabetes after menopause symptoms sinus saline spray cough medicine kids oral thrush and cancer albuterol generic name tramadol and amoxicillin topiramate 25 mg side effects treatments for schizophrenia today 500-40 white spots back of tongue perforated eardrum healing time 12 percent alcohol how to stimulate breast how do you treat blood blisters medical abbreviation for left eye rock hard pills side effects skin pain to touch no rash tea tree oil benefits and uses natural remedies for tonsillitis what are the signs of implantation cost of estrace inverted v deformity deterioration of the retina is called safe antiseptic for dogs best treatment for enlarged prostate hyssop uses and benefits sebaceous cyst on inner thigh positive ana causes aching behind eyes left nuvaring in for 4 weeks strongest painkiller in the world taking birth control with alcohol osgood schlatter disease knee pain trulicity patient reviews bad bruise on leg a1c blood test fasting or not griseofulvin over the counter contusion of toe cdc warning flu shot right temple sore to touch inflamed tonsils remedy natural sore throat cure is tramadol an nsaid blisters on baby bottom s 90 3 green pill what is pliva 434 used for maximum dose of seroquel progesterone generic name vistaril vs atarax another name for folic acid adderall adult add best medicine to stop diarrhea calf muscle pop sound dong quai tea claritin safe for breastfeeding advil cold sinus ancillary products definition brown discharge with odor 9 weeks pregnant abortion can you get pregnant without ejaculation sodium benzoate molecular formula flat foot toddler traumeel cream walmart albuterol muscle cramps abdominal pain lower best medicine for panic attacks how to make someone go crazy c-72 approved pregnancy medications can oxycodone cause insomnia red bumps on vag belching egg taste ear infection blocked hearing medicated calf milk replacer blood in urine foley catheter citracal slow release 1200 cosequin ds for dogs feel like uterus is falling out raynaud’s will furosemide or lasix is used as temporary blindness causes arb meds names rx eye drops for allergies is depression a disability bathing with shingles hypoglycemia what to eat five year birth control shot why am i weezing how to treat hypoxemia antibiotics used to treat epididymitis deodorants for hyperhidrosis cure for tendonitis in knee bosley shampoo before and after is l-theanine safe xanax urine drug test convert ng to mg breast tenderness on birth control side effect of coumadin images of caps generlac for constipation low chloride in the blood adderall doctor near me relief for tendonitis in wrist alzheimers disease signs plantar wart surgery recovery time strep throat without fever need to identify a pill hemorrhoids recovery time tsh high levels cramping above belly button nicotine gum risks is mrsa dangerous morning after pill works ondansetron over the counter substitute marijuana use while breastfeeding veins of foot buy hydergine online menthol cough drops during pregnancy what is chlorpheniramine tdap vs tdap gomori silver stain gestational hypertension causes pure testosterone injection big toe nail fungus tobramycin and dexamethasone ophthalmic ointment prealbumin levels normal what makes neuropathy worse essential tremor symptoms and treatment what causes gums to hurt tricuspid valve leaking amitriptyline 10mg side effects can i take 2 10mg ambien allopurinol and colchicine dosage for benadryl for adults diet pills and pregnancy what is schedule 4 drugs how to cure fungus toenails bandage removal solution strongest sleep aid otc painful sex after yeast infection progesterone 200 mg during pregnancy pictures of foot bones rash on inside of elbow pictures sudden heartburn at night headache muscle spasms vit k foods chart order vicodin online ultra man multivitamin review smoking fake weed pain near belly button while pregnant nose swabs for cold ways to pass drug test home remedy for opiate withdrawal diazepam 5mg tablets clear fluid filled bumps on face circle bruise on leg can anxiety cause pressure in head stomach pains when i eat new lantus insulin cervical ectropion or cervical cancer top of hand swollen and painful cetaphil eczema cream potassium food sources is accutane permanent symptoms of partial small bowel obstruction effects of weed on adhd frontal balding treatment what causes red cheeks in adults furosemide blood pressure azithromycin and tylenol ingrown fingernail infection sharp pain lower stomach liver dry mouth does medicare pay motrin and advil prescription retin a pituitary tumor headache passing drug test forum inflammatory arthritis knee ear popping and pain what are braxton hicks pill identifier m357 scored what is high cholestrol frequent ear infections in adults treatment for tendinitis what causes elevated pulse rate fluticasone sinus infection which is stronger vyvanse or adderall thyroid biopsy recovery time foramina are patent schiff move free advanced strep throat symptons natural medicine for overactive bladder docetaxel side effects long term sciatica pain releif metformin prescription assistance piroxicam side effects dogs selegiline hydrochloride for dogs what is rich milk treatment for tonsillitis pulled tendon in foot lazy eye amblyopia turrets syndrome medication what is chronic hepatitis b uterine cancer symptons diuretics and potassium definition of hallucinogenic what is sulphate ssri drugs side effects optic neuritis mri how many teaspoons ina tablespoon swollen knees and ankles diazepam vs alprazolam coughing up clear fluid from lungs suboxone weight gain oval white pill m358 how long should you take antidepressants how to control pain nitrofurantoin mono-mcr 100 mg oxycontin in system clotrimazole vaginal suppository chest pain and heaviness flouride side effects when to start clomid talus fracture surgery prednisone side effects in humans how to make homemade hydrocodone is nyquil bad pills for copd salicylic acid 2 recommended adderall dosage genu corpus callosum fluoxetine for premature ejaculation facial boil treatment red bump inside vagina vaccine for genital warts antibiotics for folliculitis soreness under jaw zinc oxide powder cvs medications for memory loss carbon monoxide cause cerenia dosage for cats what is one g how to interpret blood test results where to give heparin injection what is ertaczo used for side effects of androgel desmopressin nasal spray price trigeminal neuralgia. symptoms of bronchial infection posterior nose bleeding lexapro and sleepiness gilead sciences inc taxol j code illegal drug related deaths eggs and uric acid does potassium cause diarrhea arthritis in the hip and knee ocd and add buspirone and weight gain the dangers of marijuana normal body temperature in c reputable online pharmacies albuterol sulfate dosage what is iron vitamin stop itching from hives medicine like pepto bismol pros and cons of alternative medicine why is my poop watery alcohol and pvcs dog itching remedies benadryl 10mg methadone pills stopping dry cough inotropic effect means swelling of the optic nerve swollen pelvic lymph node dextromethorphan 20 mg male incontinence treatment how to treat skin yeast infection broken knee surgery why vomit bile pills that make you high why am i so thick blood in knee joint b1 thiamine deficiency how to measure serotonin levels back pain medication effient side effects hearing aid instructions subcutaneous cyst on back cysts all over body eye feels sore reputable canadian mail order pharmacy bayberry bark extract how much valerian to take i poop blood inhaled corticosteroids wiki dxm false positive high blood pressure medication labetalol urinary system pictures shoulder blade sprain percocet withdrawal timeline symptoms medication for chronic headaches what does vertigo mean in spanish is lexapro like xanax pictures of passion flower irritable bowel syndrome diarrhea smooth muscle relaxation burning nerve pain in thigh joint pain glucosamine chondroitin msm treatments for chronic back pain appleton eye associates amesbury what is vaginal cancer fluocinonide cream .05 heaviest day of period zoloft in children broken femur surgery benefits of witch hazel for skin dnr wallet card lortab 10 pictures long term effects of caffeine avastin ovarian cancer blood spotting after period sore throat ears hurt sleeping aids melatonin what cause psoriasis to flare up asthma inhaler medicine kava kava walgreens medications for nightmares allergic reaction to sun cough not getting better sleep terrors treatment airborne while breastfeeding ruptured epidermal inclusion cyst pill for the next day anal birth control foul smelling discharge symptoms of gallbladder problems in humans chunky white discharge itchy can menopause make you nauseous benicar vs benicar hct cipro muscle pain stomach coating medicine maximum dosage of tylenol per day birth control and acne 3000 mg of acetaminophen stendra 100mg reviews tamoxifen hot flashes sensodyne iso active toothpaste definition of dorsiflexion foods to eat when diarrhea cystoscopy with stent placement function of sinuses pharyngitis and tonsillitis t-dependent antigen what is onglyza what are cortisone shots blue oval pill 17 17-beta estradiol 50 mg doxylamine scopolamine side effects what causes mitral valve prolapse systematic lupus erythematosus fast acting insulin pen how effective is monistat magnesium for pain chest pain and high blood pressure how does ativan work sublimed sulfur uses symptoms of pots syndrome missed miscarriage symptoms hernia above navel frequent urination and burning clear eyes ingredients atypical melanocytic proliferation pill a 10 ip 178 pill orange pill with m retin a generic does benadryl make you sleepy low kidney function 4 months no period robaxin 500mg cost porque da diarrea pain in right lower leg drug interactions metoprolol infant red face rash on shoulder preparation h wipes walmart bump by nipple ibuprofen and anxiety first check home 4 drug test how to take nitrofurantoin bupropion half life signs and symptoms of vasospasm do anti depressants work dime sized red spot on skin cost of cialis daily new ibs drug excedrin chemical formula side effects of etodolac ativan under tongue bleeding when not menstruating ear infection severe headache bactrim ds dosing getting rid of tinea versicolor alcohol cold turkey hangover shortness of breath glass the drug buspar 15 mg high price of chantix pneumocystis jiroveci treatment pain medicine contract lidocaine-prilocaine non prescription steroids pepto bismol liquid dosage take a meal alpha-tocopherol deficiency yellow number 1 pain in my intestines cracking sound in knees when bending antifungal for thrush what are azo pills used for can periods be late japanese cherry blossom hand sanitizer seeds stuck in colon
From www.

Confronting Iran

By Kenneth R. Timmerman
| November 25, 2005

Vienna, Austria -- International Atomic Energy Agency Director General Mohammad ElBaradei is pressing members of the agency's board of governors to make one last effort to find a diplomatic solution before sending Iran's case to the United Nations Security Council for possible sanctions, IAEA officials and European diplomats said in Vienna.

The decision to refer Iran the UN Security Council could come as early as today, as the IAEA Board of Governors meets to discuss new information discovered by inspectors in Iran.

Dr. ElBaradei discussed a potential "face-saving" deal European negotiators could offer Tehran during meetings with U.S. Secretary of State Condoleeza Rice in Washington on November 8. The following week, Russian foreign minister Ivanov and South African diplomat Abdul Minty flew to Tehran, to discuss possible ways of winning Iranian cooperation with the nuclear agency. ElBaradei is also expected to visit Tehran.

"Our message to Iran is that they have an opportunity to influence the timing and nature of the report to the UN Security Council," a State Department official said..

This latest meeting of the IAEA Board of Governors has riveted the attention of all those involved because of its earth-shattering gravity. What happens next in Vienna will determine the future of the entire non-proliferation regime, not just Iran's nuclear program. It could also determine the fate of the Middle East.

A failure to act will encourage other nations to follow Iran's example, and develop nuclear weapons on the sly. But referring Iran to the UN Security Council also has its cost. "So we go to New York, the [IAEA] inspectors get tossed out, and we get a war. Then what have we achieved?" an exasperated European negotiator told me in Vienna.

Thanks to the persistence of IAEA inspectors on the ground, we now have a fairly detailed picture of Iran's nuclear archipelago - at least, those facilities the Iranian government has been forced to open. As described in eight successive reports to the Board of Governors, we know that Iran discovered, mined and milled natural uranium, the basic building block of any enrichment program, without telling the IAEA.

We know that Iran built a Uranium Conversion Facility in Isfahan to convert uranium yellowcake into uranium hexafluoride gas (UF6), the feedstock for uranium enrichment, without the required prior notifications to the IAEA.

We know that Iran built an underground centrifuge uranium enrichment plant at Natanz, hardened against missile attack, and erected dummy buildings on the surface to conceal it from overhead surveillance. They agreed to open this facility to the IAEA only after its existence was confirmed in commercial satellite imagery, and appear to have swept the underground halls of whatever equipment had previously been installed before the inspectors could arrive.

Once fully operational, these facilities will give the Islamic Republic of Iran mastery of the entire nuclear fuel cycle. For eighteen years, the Iranian government successfully concealed these activities from the IAEA, in clear violation of its safeguards agreement. For this reason alone, the IAEA Board must refer Iran to the UN Security Council for further actions, as required by the agency’s charter.

"Iran argues that it is promoting the peaceful use of nuclear technology. It is not. It is subverting peaceful use to pursue a dangerous course," U.S. ambassador Greg Schulte told the IAEA board in August. "Iran has no need for its heavy investment in an indigenous fuel cycle. Unless, of course, it wants nuclear weapons. Iran doesn't even have enough natural uranium to enrich for a civil nuclear program. But it has enough for a small stockpile of nuclear weapons," Schulte added.

The problem is that the technology needed to enrich uranium to four percent to fuel civilian power reactors, is identical to what''s needed to enrich uranium to 93 percent to make weapons. The only thing separating the two is a matter of intent.

"With Iran, we realized that mastery of the fuel cycle makes you a virtual nuclear weapons state," a top aide to ElBaradei told me in Vienna. "That was a wake-up call for all of us."

But a wake-up call that just allows the IAEA board to go back to sleep is useless. For two and a half years, the European Union has made every possible effort to get Iran to fully cooperate with the IAEA and make a clean breast of its nuclear activities, to no avail.

Intentions have always been key to the nonproliferation regime. Because the technologies needed to build a bomb are essentially identical to those needed for civilian nuclear programs, the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) enshrined civilian intent as a precondition - not as an after-the-fact declaration - to nuclear technology transfer to non-nuclear states.

Under Article II, non-nuclear signatory nations pledge to abandon all efforts to develop nuclear weapons.. In exchange for that pledge, which is unconditional and irrevocable, they are given access to nuclear technologies.

That pledges requires complete, transparent cooperation with the IAEA. Instead, Iran has been playing cheat and retreat. Consider:
    •   When the IAEA announced it wanted to inspect a suspected enrichment cascade within the Revolutionary Guards complex at Lavizan-Shian, the Iranian government stalled for months until it could raze the site and remove the evidence. To make it more difficult for inspectors to take environmental samples, the Iranians even carted away bushes, rubble and dirt.
    •   When the IAEA asked to visit a suspected weaponization lab within the Parchin defense production plant, the Iranians stalled. When they finally allowed a small team onto the site, they limited their movements, in clear violation of Iran’s commitments to the agency.
   •     If you comb through the eight IAEA reports, you will find dozens of similar examples. Is this the behavior of a government that takes its non-proliferation pledge seriously?

ElBaradei has stated that the IAEA has found "no evidence" of a weapons program in Iran. Tehran's leaders have used that statement as proof of their peaceful intentions.

By its statute, however, the IAEA has no authority to determine whether a country has a nuclear weapons program or not. That is up for the UN Security Council to determine. The IAEA's job is to determine whether a nation has violated its safeguards agreement. ElBaradei made that finding official in November 2003, and reiterated it in his September 2, 2005 report to the IAEA board. When that happens, the IAEA charter requires that the board refer the violator to the UN Security Council.

As for the larger question: what would evidence of a nuclear weapons program actually look like? Does the "crime" of cheating on its NPT obligations have such a high standard of evidence that a nation must actually test a nuclear explosive device before we can all agree that the crime has been committed?

Does it mean that IAEA inspectors or a UN Security Council member state must discover secret weapons production labs? Weapons designs? Actual nuclear warheads? Or that a nation must declare that it has become a weapons state and withdraw from the NPT, as North Korea did in January 2003?

I do not believe that the framers of the NPT took nuclear weapons so casually as to require this type of evidence to determine an Article II violation. Instead, they placed the burden of proving honorable intent on the signatory nations themselves, by requiring an unequivocal and binding statement of civilian intent. Without peaceful intent, declared and pursued in total transparency, there is no right to nuclear technology. Period.

Iran made that binding statement of intent when it signed and ratified the NPT in 1970. And it has broken it repeatedly, both in word and in deed.

Understanding the intentions of Iran's leaders is not as difficult or as ambiguous as some may feel. Eighteen years of concealing its nuclear programs from the IAEA constitutes a powerful track record of deceit. But it is equally important to listen to what the Iranians say about their intentions.
    •  1986. Then-president Ayatollah Ali Khamenei gives a pep talk at the headquarters of the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran in Tehran. "Regarding atomic energy, we need it now," he said. What Khamenei meant by "energy," however, has little in common with how the term is used in the West. "Our nation has always been threatened from outside. The least we can do to face this danger is to let our enemies know that we can defend ourselves. Therefore, every step you take here is in defense of your country and your evolution. With this in mind, you should work hard and at great speed." [italics mine].
   •     Are these words that describe a program to build civilian nuclear power reactors or medical isotopes? (At the time, Iran's sole nuclear power plant lay in ruins in Busheir).
   •    Oct. 6, 1988. Majles speaker Ali Akbar Hashemi-Rafsanjani addresses the Revolutionary Guards Corps. "We should fully equip ourselves both in the offensive and defense use of chemical, bacteriological, and radiological weapons. From now on, you should make use of the opportunity and perform this task."
    •   Jan. 27, 1992. Rafsanjani scientific advisor Homayoun Vahdati tells Germany's Die Welt newspaper: "We should like to acquire the technical know-how and the industrial facilities required to manufacture nuclear weapons, just in case we need them. This does not mean that we currently want to build them or that we have changed our defense strategy to include a nuclear program."”
    •    September 1995. During a conference on nuclear proliferation in Castiglioncello, Italy, I laid out evidence of what I believed was an apparent nuclear weapons program in Iran to a top Iranian arms control official, Hassan Mashadi. His response stunned an audience of well-known arms control experts. "My government is keeping its nuclear options open," he said. Isn't that precisely what the NPT is supposed to prevent?
    •     Dec. 14, 2001. At a Jerusalem day rally at Tehran University, Hashemi-Rafsanjani uttered what may be the most sinister of the regime's scarcely-veiled threats. "The use of an atomic bomb against Israel would destroy Israel completely, while [the same] against the world of Islam only would cause damages. Such a scenario is not inconceivable."
  •   June 12, 2004. Foreign Minister Kamal Kharrazi declared the regime's hostility to further negotiations with the EU3. "We won't accept any new obligations. Iran has a high technical capability and has to be recognized by the international community as a member of the nuclear club. This is an irreversible path."
   •   March 6, 2005. Hashemi-Rafsanjani reiterated Iran's intention not to dismantle its nuclear fuel cycle facilities, as the EU3 and the IAEA had been demanding. "Definitely we can't stop our nuclear program and won't stop it. You can't take technology away from a country already possessing it."
•    Oct. 26, 2005. Iran's new president, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, declared that Israel must be "wiped off the map." When challenged to retract that statement, instead he called tens of thousands of supporters into the streets of Tehran to reinforce it.

These statements, in addition to Iran's material infractions and history of deceit, constitute prima facie evidence of nuclear weapons intent.

The danger of doing nothing far outweighs the costs of referring Iran to the UN Security Council.

First, there is the risk that Iran has been secretly enriching uranium, possibly for many years. If it used the centrifuges it now admits it purchased through the black market network of Pakistani nuclear impresario A.Q. Khan - and if they worked - the Islamic Republic today could have enough fissile material to produce between twenty to twenty-five bombs, according to widely-accepted calculations..

Then there is the breakout scenario. This has been described in detail in a September 2004 study by Henry Sokolski and the Washington, DC-based Nonprolifertion Policy Education Center. By using the fuel from a single core of the Busheir reactor, Iran could produce “a large arsenal of nuclear weapons - fifty to seventy-five bombs- using a small, clandestine reprocessing plant, and then announce that it was withdrawing from the NPT.

President Bush has warned repeatedly that nuclear weapons in the hands of terrorists presents the gravest danger facing the world today. Given the fact that the Iranian regime continues to shelter top al Qaeda leaders, and materially facilitated the travel of eight to ten of the "muscle hijackers" who carried out the September 11 attacks, the dangers of allowing the Islamic Republic of Iran to go nuclear ought to be obvious.

Are we really willing to risk allowing the world's most open sponsor of international terror to become a nuclear weapons-capable state? That is the question the IAEA Board of Governors must address.
Mr. Timmerman is a former U.S. Congressional aide and New York Times best-selling author. His latest book, Countdown to Crisis: the Coming Nuclear Showdown with Iran, was published by Crown Forum in June 2005. At the request of the Department of State, he presented a longer version of this article to diplomats and the press earlier this month in Vienna, Austria.

Original article